中級日本語ー Making and Ordering Food
October 25, 2010 § Leave a comment
Making Breakfast And Lunch
How many times a day do you eat a shokuji (shoh-koo-jee; meal)? If you’re lucky, you taberu (tah-beh-roo; eat) three times a day. If you’re too busy, you may eat only once or twice.
|If you’re obi .issed with food, you may eat all the time.Japanese doesn’t have one convenient adjective like “hungry.” To express hunger, you say onaka ga suita (oh-nah-kah gah soo-ee-tah) or, with the polite suffix, onaka ga sukimashita (oh-nah-kah gah soo-kee-mah-shee-tah). Onaka means “belly” or “stomach,” and suita and sukimashita mean “became empty.” You’re saying that your stomach became empty. The following are typical shokuji (shoh-koo-jee; meals) and oyatsu (oh-yah-tsoo; snacks):
It’s no accident that shoku appears in several of the words related to eating. This word stem often (though not always) means “eat.”
Here’s how to conjugate the important u- verbs taberu (tah-beh-roo; to eat) and nomu (noh-moo; to drink).
Eating breakfast in Mo cultures
A Japanese asagohan (ah-sah-goh-hahn; breakfast) can be downright exquisite if you have the eyes (and the palate) to see it that way. Before stepping into a Japanese-style shokudO (shoh-koo-dohh; dining room) for breakfast, familiarize yourself with what they serve:
- gohan (goh-hahn; cooked rice)
- horenso no ohitashi (hohh-rehn-sohh noh oh-hee-tah-shee; boiled spinach seasoned with soy sauce)
- misoshiru (mee-soh-shee-roo; soybean-paste soup)
- nama tamago (nah-mah tah-mah-goh; raw eggs)
- natto (naht-tohh; fermented soybeans)
- nori (noh-ree; seaweed)
- onsen tamago (ohn-sehn tah-mah-goh; hot-spring boiled egg/soft-boiled egg)
- tsukemono (tsoo-keh-moh-noh; pickled vegetables)
- yakizakana (yah-kee-zah-kah-nah; grilled/ broiled fish)
You may prefer to experiment later in the day and just enjoy a Western-style breakfast. 1 never miss out on my morning kohi (kohh-heee; coffee), and I haven’t skipped my breakfast beguru (behh-goo-roo; bagel) and kurlmu chlzu (koo-reee-moo cheee-zoo; cream cheese) for ten years. What are your favorite breakfast foods?
- bekon (behh-kohn; bacon)
- hamu (hah-moo; ham)
- soseji (sohh-sehh-jee; sausage)
- medamayaki (meh-dah-mah-yah-kee; fried egg)
- sukuranburu eggu (soo-koo-rahn-boo-roo ehg-goo; scrambled eggs)
- kurowassan (koo-roh-wahs-sahn; croissant)
- tosuto (tohh-soo-toh; toast)
- jamu (jah-moo; jam)
- bata (bah-tahh; butter)
- kocha (kohh-chah; black tea)
- miruku (mee-roo-koo; milk)
- is orenji jusu (oh-rehn-jee jooo-soo; orange juice)
Munching uour lunch
In Japan, noodles are popular lunchtime (fln meals. The thick, white noodles that you may have seen in soups are udon (oo-dohn); buckwheat noodles are soba (soh-bah). And don’t forget ramen (rahh-mehn) noodles, which the Japanese adopted from China.
Rice dishes in big bowls with different toppings are also popular for lunch. These meals are called donburi (dohn-boo-ree; big bowl).
What do you eat for lunch?
- hanbaga (hahn-bahh-gahh; hamburger)
- piza (pee-zah; pizza)
- sandoicchi (sahn-doh-eet-chee; sandwich)
- sarada (sah-rah-dah; salad)
- supagetti (soo-pah-geht-teee; spaghetti)
- supu (sooo-poo; soup)
1 usually use these tasty items to give my sandoicchi a little kick:
- chizu (cheee-zoo; cheese)
- kechappu (keh-chahp-poo; ketchup)
- masutado (mah-soo-tahh-doh; mustard)
- mayonezu (mah-yoh-nehh-zoo; mayonnaise)
- pikurusu (pee-koo-roo-soo; pickle)
Ordering fast food
Whether you’re ordering piza (pee-zah; pizza) with friends or grabbing a sandoicchi (sahn-doh-eet-chee; sandwich) for lunch, you probably spend a fair amount of money enriching fast-food chains. This section tells you how to chumon suru (chooo-mohn soo-roo; order) a hanbaga (hahn-bahh-gahh; hamburger) and furaido poteto (foo-rah-ee-doh poh-teh-toh; fries) in Japanese. Check out some other popular fast-food dishes:
Now that you have a handle on the menu, practice conjugating the verb chumon suru (chooo-mohn soo-roo; to order). This term is actually a combination of the noun chumon (order) and the verb suru (to do), so you conjugate just the suru part. Yes, it’s an irregular verb.
You may have to answer a couple of questions when you order at a fast-food joint:
- Omochi kaeri desu ka (oh-moh-chee kah-eh-ree deh-soo kah) means “Will you take it home?” or “To go?”
- Kochira de omeshiagari desu ka (koh-chee-rah
- deh oh-meh-shee-ah-gah-ree deh-soo kah) means “Will you eat here?” or “For here?”
If you hear one of these questions, just answer hai (hah-ee; yes) or ie (eee-eh; no).
Making dinner reservations
The Japanese are gourmets. They often line up in front of popular restaurants, and they don’t mind waiting an hour or more. If you don’t want to wait in line, make a yoyaku (yoh-yah-koo; reservation) over the phone.
The Japanese say “to make a reservation” by saying “to do a reservation,” which is yoyaku o suru (yoh-yah-koo oh soo-roo). Remember that suru (soo-roo; to do) is an irregular verb.
Conjugate yoyaku o suru. Because yoyaku is a noun, all you have to worry about is the suru part.
|yoyaku o suru||yoh-yah-koo oh soo-roo|
|yoyaku o shinai||yoh-yah-koo oh shee-nah-ee|
|yoyaku o shi||yoh-yah-koo oh shee|
|yoyaku o shite||yoh-yah-koo oh shee-teh|
First, tell the restaurant’s host when you want to arrive. (Chapter 3 explains the basics of how to tell time in Japanese, including the concepts of a.m., p.m., and o’clock.) Below table provides the time ranges you’re likely to need when making dinner reservations.
|6:15||roku-ji jugo-fun||roh-koo-jee jooo-goh-foon|
|6:30||roku-ji han||roh-koo-jee hahn|
|6:45||roku-ji yonjugo-fun roh-koo-jee||yohn-jooo-goh-foon|
After you establish a time, let the host know how many people are in your party. Japanese uses a counter (a short suffix that follows a number) to count people. Which counter you use depends on the item you’re counting. For example, you can’t just say go (goh; five) when you have five people in your party. You have to say go-nin (goh-neen), because -nin (neen) is the counter for people. But watch out for the irregular hitori (hee-toh-ree; one person) and futari (foo-tah-ree; two people).
Below table can help you count people.
|Expressing a Number of People|
|Number of People||Japanese||Pronunciation|
Here’s how a typical conversation about a restaurant reservation may go:
Host: Maido arigato gozaimasu. (mah-ee-doh ah-ree-gah-tohh goh-zah-ee-mah-soo; Thank you for your patronage. How can I help you?)
Makoto: Ano, konban, yoyaku o shitai-n-desu ga.(ah-nohh, kohn-bahn, yoh-yah-koo oh shee-tah-een-deh-soo gah; I would like to make a reservation for tonight.)
Host: Hai, arigato gozaimasu. Nan-ji goro. (hah-ee, ah-ree-gah-tohh goh-zah-ee-mah-soo. nahn-jee goh-roh; Yes, thank you. About what time?)
Makoto: Shichi-ji desu. (shee-chee-jee deh-soo; 7:00, please.)
Host: Hai. Nan-nin-sama. (hah-ee. nahn-neen-sah-mah; Certainly. How many people?)
Makoto: Go-nin desu. (goh-neen deh-soo; Five people.)
In Japanese, you often form a statement by using -n-desu (n-deh-soo) in conversation. The effect of -n-desu is to encourage your partner to respond. Saying Yoyaku o shitai-n-desu (yoh-yah-koo oh shee-tah-een-deh-soo; I’d like to make a reservation) sounds much more inviting and friendly than saying Yoyaku o shitai desu because it shows your willingness to listen to the other person’s comments.
Use -n-desu in informal conversation but not in writing or public speech.
When you follow a verb with -n-desu, the verb must be in the informal/plain form. Ending your statement with the particle ga (gah; but), as in Yoyaku o shitai-n-desu ga, makes it clear that you’re waiting for the other person to reply.