JLPT 4 – particles
October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment
In this lesson we will be learning many different sentence patterns. We will study conjunctions of Reason and Cause. By Reason and Cause conjunctions we want to say that we will learn specific phrases and sentence patterns which we need to use while giving causes or reasons.
|//||Other aspects which we will look at is the Japanese word for “even though, even if” and its respective use in Japanese grammar. Let’s start learning the sentence patterns one by one.
1. In the first sentence pattern of this lesson we will learn the difference between the two phrases “made” and “made ni”. We have learnt in the previous lessons about the Japanese word “made” which means “till”. Before both “made” and “made ni” a word related to time always comes. By adding “ni” particle to “made” a little change comes in the meaning but it is a very important change. Consider the following two sentences:
– (Please come here till 5:00 o’clock.)
– (Please come here before 5:00 o’clock)
In the first sentence we have used “made”. Here the action of coming continues till 5 o’clock. On the other hand, we have used “made ni”; here the action should take place and should be completed before 5 o’clock. Some other examples which will make use of “made ni” are given below:
| Example: 1
– (I wish to go to Japan before spring of next year.)
– (Then, please try to learn Japanese language by that time.)
– (I am in Japan till March. There after I will go to Singapore and will return to India before 15th April.)
2. In this sentence pattern we will learn how to talk about the activities which is or “duty, obligation or necessity” in Japanese language. “- nakereba narimasen” or “- na kereba naranai” are the two sentence patterns used for this purpose. These phrases actually mean “I must do/ I have to do” (there is no other alternative/ option except this). The method of changing a verb into this form is very simple. First change the verb into its “nai” form. Now remove the “i” which is at the end of the verb. Finally add “nakereba narimasen” to the remaining verb. This is how you will get the “nakereba narimasen” or “nakereba naranai” form of the verb. Following is a small table which consists of verbs from all the three groups to show you how they are changed into this form.
Let’s study the following examples related to this sentence pattern:
– (There is an examination next week. So, I have to study from now.)
– (I have a toothache since last night. So, I must go to the hospital today.)
3. Now we will learn the use of the word “kara” as a conjunction. Kara will be used to join two sentences. The meaning of “kara” in this sentence pattern is “because, so, due to”. Basically its use is to give reason or cause in this sentence pattern. One thing to remember about this sentence pattern is that the action which takes place in the second sentence is the result of the action that has been performed in the first sentence. In other words, the sentence after “kara” is the result of the action which has taken place in the sentence before the word “kara”. “Kara comes immediately after the “masu”, “mashita”, “ta”, “nai”, “nakatta” and dictionary forms of verbs. In case of i-adjectives it comes after the “kunai”, “katta” and “kunakatta” forms of this adjective. In case of nouns or na-adjectives it comes immediately after “desu”, “da”, “data” and “jyanakatta” forms. Following are few sentences provided to you as examples of this sentence pattern:
– (Yesterday, I slept late so I could not get up early today.)
– (This area is quiet and that is why one can study well.)
4. Another word which can be used to give reason and cause is “no de”. This word has a similar meaning as “kara” but there is difference between the uses of these two words in a sentence. When the reason and result of an event is imaginative or subjective at that time “kara” is used. On the other hand, when the reason and result is objective at that time “no de” is used. Another important difference is that when a noun or a na-adjective comes before “no de” at that time “da” is removed from their respective plain forms and “na” is added to it. For example in case of “genkida”, “da” will be removed and “na” will be added. Therefore the new form of na-adjective now will be “genkina + node”. In the same way in case of noun “gakuseida”, “da” will be removed and “na” will be added to it. So the form of noun will become “gakuseina + node”. Following are some examples of the use of “node”.
– (I came to school late, because there was an accident.)
– (Mr. Tanaka is not well, so he didn’t go to work today.)
5. In the fifth sentence pattern of this lesson we will learn the use and meaning of the word “no ni”. As you can see we have joined two different particles together which helps us join two paradoxical sentences. The meaning of “no ni” in English is “inspite of, even though”. When the results of something do not occur as assumed by the speaker at that time “no ni” is used. Students should be very careful about the forms of the verbs and adjectives which come before “no ni”. Similar to “no de”, in “no ni” also when plain form of noun or na-adjective comes before “no ni”, “da” is removed and “na” is added. Read the following examples for a better understanding:
– (Even though he said that his stomach was full, he is still eating.)
– (Inspite of taking medicines, the disease is not at all getting cured.)
6. When you want to enquire about the main reason due to which some event has taken place or due to which you have received a particular result, at that time we make use of the phrase “dou shite” in Japanese language. “Dou shite” means “why”, “how” or “what is the reason”. While giving answer to this question usually “kara” is used in the sentence. Read the following conversations which make use of the phrase “dou shite”.
A: why will you not go to the party?
B: The reason is that I have lot of work and I am busy
A: Why do you return late from work every day?
B: The reason is that there is a lot of work now a days and I have to do it.
7. When you have more than one reason for not doing or for doing a thing then at that time instead of using “kara” or “no de” again and again for many times it is better to use “shi”. “Shi” is used as a conjunction which means “and” in this sentence pattern. “Shi” is used after the first reason is expressed and “kara” or “no de” is used after the last reason which you have given. Following are some examples which show us the use of “shi” in the sentence.
8. When you wish to give importance to someone or something in a sentence make use of “no wa”. In other words, when we want to give emphasis to a particular thing at that time “no wa” is used. The emphasis which we want to give can be anything like a person, place, things, time, likes, and dislikes, characteristic etc. “No wa” again helps us to join two sentences. We have taken only one sentence as an example and have given importance to separate things in each.
– (It is me who will be going to Shinjuku today.)
– (It is today, that I will be going to Shinjuku.)
– (The place where I will be going today is Shinjuku.)