JLPT 4 – greetings
October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment
|Another sentence pattern which we will study will teach us how to use simile in Japanese language. Similarly we will learn another sentence pattern through which we can give an advice or give a recommendation. Towards the end we will learn some new Japanese greeting. Let’s start with the sentence patterns first.
1) The first grammar pattern which we will learn is “- wa…ga aru/ arimasu”. This grammar pattern helps us to show the “possession or ownership” of a person. The thing on which the person has ownership consists of all the non-living things and also human beings i.e. relatives, friends, brothers, sisters etc. The person who is the owner or about whose possession we are talking is indicated by “wa” particle. The thing on which the person has ownership or his/ her possessions are indicated by the “ga” particle. We had learnt that the particle “arimasu” is used only to show the existence of non-living things. However here we are using it for living things also, the reason behind this is that the verb “arimasu” is also used to show the relationship that one person has with another. In case you want to express the things which you possess in numbers, then use the appropriate counters along with it. Following are a few examples of this sentence pattern.
– ( Tanaka has three younger sisters.)
– (I have siblings.)
|2) The next sentence pattern sounds very similar to the sentence pattern 1 which we have just finished studying. This sentence pattern is “- wa…ga desu” and even this pattern sounds similar but there is a difference in the way it is used. In this sentence pattern there is a lot of use of adjectives which always come immediately before “desu”. Depending on the occasion about which we are talking and the context of the sentence we can use other verbs in place of “desu”. This pattern is mainly used to describe the physical qualities of a person. It is also used to describe the physical qualities which are not good in a person. These qualities of a person whether good or bad are always indicated by “ga” particle. Given below are few examples:
– (Indians have big eyes.)
– (Yesterday, for the whole day I did mountaineering. That is why; I am unable to walk today.)
3) Now we will see how to give compliment to someone in Japanese language. The main aim of this sentence pattern is to show you how to make use of simile in Japanese grammar. The sentence pattern which we will use is “- you desu” which means “as if –“or “same as-“. The thing, person, situation or condition to which you are comparing always comes before “you”. Another thing to remember is that in-between the thing to which we are comparing and “you” always “no” particle comes. The “no” particle basically joins these two and makes the sentence structure correct and complete. “You” follows the same rules which any other “na-adjective” will follow. It basically follows the rules of a “na-adjective” to change its form. Following are few examples:
– (That mountain is as beautiful as Mt. Fuji!)
– (The old lady is laughing loudly like a child while watching the movie.)
– (The face of that girl is red, like an apple.)
4) The sentence pattern “– hou ga ii” is always used to give recommendation or advice to someone. Immediately before “hou” the “ta form” or the “nai form” of verbs, in short the plain forms of verbs are always used. The actual meaning of the word ”hou” is direction, way, method, side, However this sentence pattern literally means “it is better if you do it like this/ in this way”. On many occasions students tend to use the negative past tense form of a verb in this sentence pattern which is wrong. Either use the “ta” form or use the “nai” form.In recent times, the new generation of Japanese children have started using the “root verb form” or the “dictionary form” of verbs instead of “ta” form or “nai” form of verbs, which is also correct. This is a very easy sentence to understand and has a very simple meaning and use. Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern:
A: I had fever last night, and today I have a headache.
B: Then it is better you take some medicine.
A: In which vehicle did you travel from Mumbai to Pune?
B: I came by a taxi.
A: It is better not to take a taxi. Mumbai-Pune road is always crowded and there are many accident prone areas on that road.
Here we finish with learning the sentence patterns of this lesson. Now let’s study a few greetings one by one.
1) The first Japanese greeting which we are going to get introduced with is “dou shita no desu ka.” Or “douka shita no desu ka”. Both these greetings have the same meaning which is “what is the matter?” or “what happened?” It is used to enquire about a situation, event, and occasion or condition where something different has taken place without our knowledge. In other words, it is used to ask someone about some unexpected and unhappy situation or condition. Have a look at the following examples:
A: What is the matter
B: I fell down and got hurt.
A: What is the matter with you Mr. Ali?
B: My mother suddenly fell ill.
2) “Sore wa ikemasen ne” is the next greeting which we are going to study about. When we come to know about some bad event which has taken place or about some unhappy event at that time this expression is used in Japanese language as a reaction to what they have heard. “Sore wa ikemasen ne” actually means “Oh! That is too bad.” or “Oh! I am sorry.” or “That is not good!” Following are two examples where this Japanese greeting has been used:
A: I have had a stomach ache since last night and so I couldn’t eat anything.
B: Oh! That is too bad.
A:Yesterday, I forgot my camera in the train.
B:That is not good!
3) When we meet a person who is unwell or someone who has met with an accident while leaving we greet them by saying “Please get well soon!” or “please take care of your health!” in English. In the same way there is a Japanese greeting “odaijini” which means the same as that of the English greeting. So in short “odaijini” means “Take care” or “get well soon”. Following is an example which shows the use of this Japanese greeting:
– (I have a headache. Please, allow me to leave early.)
– (Please take care of your health.)