JLPT 3 – new patterns
October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment
After properly understanding the sentence patterns of lesson 1, then only start studying the grammar of this lesson. In this lesson you will observe that there are few sentence patterns which almost have the same meaning and use. So let’s start with the learning of the sentence patterns.
|//||1. In this sentence pattern we will see the phrase which is used to show the comparison between various things. “~ni kurabete/ ~ni kurabe” which means in comparison with or as compared to is the phrase used in such sentences. Basically “kuraberu” is the verb whose different forms are used here along with “ni” particle. The meaning of “kuraberu” is to compare. Noun should always come before this phrase. Below are few examples which show you the use of this sentence pattern
– (Compared to my elder brother, my younger studies better.)
– (Compared to last year, this year’s rainfall is good.)
2. “~ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagai” is the sentence pattern to show spontaneous or natural change which takes place due to some other change. In other words one change follows another change. This sentence pattern is similar to sentence pattern no.2.C of lesson 1. There we used the phrase “~to tomoni”. Before “~ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagau” either the dictionary form of a verb or a noun comes. Read the following examples related to the use of the phrase “!ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagai”.
– (As a result of the nearing of the exams, tension also increased.)
| – (kougyouka: industrialization; shizen: natural; kankyou: environment; hakai: damage; As a result of industrialization, the natural environment got damaged.)
3. This sentence pattern is also very similar to or same as the third use of the phrase “~to tomoni” and the use of “~ni shitagatte”. The phrase which we are going to learn here is “~ni tsurete/ ~ni tsure”. This sentence pattern is again used to show a gradual change. The first change results and is followed by the second change. Same as the other two phrases here also either a noun or the dictionary form of the verb is used. Below are a few examples of this sentence pattern.
– (If the product is good then its price also is expensive.)
– (Along with the change in era there is a change in the method of marriage also.)
4. When you are indicating an object or a person at that time the sentence pattern “~ni taishite/ ~ni taishi/ ~ni taishitemo/ ~ni taishi suru” is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase basically means “towards”. A noun is always used before this phrase. Read the following examples to understand this pattern properly.
– (You are not allowed to use impolite words towards guests.)
– (Mr. Chin has liking not only for Japan’s economy but also holds liking towards the Japanese literature.)
5. This sentence pattern teaches us the use of the phrase “~ni tsuite/ ~ni tsuite wa/ ~ni tsuki/ ~ni tsuitemo/ ~ni tsuite no”. This phrase literally means “regarding”. When we are talking or thinking about something at that time to express this we mostly use this phrase. A noun comes before this phrase. The only exception is when you use “~no tsuite no” at that time noun comes after this phrase. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are given below.
– (There are many opinions regarding the root cause of this disease.)
– (I want a book regarding the methods of using this computer.)
6. When a person wants to put forward his/ her judgment or when after something he/ she wants to express his/ her point of view at that time “~ni totte/ ~ni totte wa/ ~ni tottemo/ ~ni totteno” phrase is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase when translated in English will mean “from point of view of…”. Again in this sentence pattern also a noun comes before the phrase except when we use “~ni totteno”. When we use “ni totteno” at that time noun comes after this phrase. Let’s study some examples related to this sentence pattern which are given below.
– (taisetsu: important; From my point of view this photograph is very important as compared to anything else.)
– (kankyou: environment; mondai: problem; jinrui: human race; kadai: problem; From the point of view of human race the environmental problem is the problem for everyone.)
7. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now has two different uses and two different meanings accordingly. The sentence pattern is “~ni tomonatte/ ~ni tomonai/ ~ni tomonau”. Following are its uses explained separately in detail along with the respective examples. A) The first use and meaning of this sentence pattern is according to/ in proportion to/ accordingly. When you use the sentence pattern in this way then either a noun or the root verb comes before this phrase. For example.
– (In proportion to the increasing population, the other problems are also increasing.)
– (In proportion to economic development, the environmental destruction has become a problem.)
B) The second use helps us to talk or tell about things which occur at the same time. Here before the phrase nouns are used. Read the following examples of this use.
– (jishin: earthquake; kasai: fire; hassei: occur; When earthquake occurs at the same time fire also takes place.)
– (jiyuu: freedom; sekinin: responsibilities; Along with freedom at the same time responsibilities were also received.)
8. Now in this sentence pattern we will be learning the use and meaning of the phrase “~ni yotte/ ~ni yori/ ~ni yoru/ ~ni yotte wa”. This phrase has five different uses and meanings respectively. However one thing common in all these uses is that always before this phrase noun comes. Let’s study each use keenly and understand them clearly.
A) In the first the phrase helps us to show who exactly has done a particular thing. In other words we can say it means “by”. Following examples will make this use clear to you.
– (houan: government bill; kokkai: Japanese parliament; shounin: approve; The bills are approved by the Japanese parliament.)
– (ishi: doctor; shindan: diagnosis; kekka: result; houkoku: report; I will report the results of the diagnosis done by the doctor.)
B) In the second use this phrase is used to show the root cause of something. Hence it basically means “because of”. Let’s read some examples related to this use.
– (fuchuui: carelessness; jiko: accident; Sever accidents take place because of carelessness.)
(ansatsu: assassination; seiji: government; konran: confuse; The government of A country got confused because of the Prime minister’s assassination.)
C) The meaning of the phrase when we use it in the third way is “by means of” or “with the help of”. Following are the examples of this use.
– (hanashiai: discussion; kaiketsu: solve; By means of discussion it is better to solve the problem.)
– (Bus is a convenient means of commutation but is time consuming.)
D) The forth use simply means “according to”. The examples are as follows.
– (shuukan: customs; Customs ar different according to different countries.)
– (doryoku: hard work/ efforts; seika: result; The result will be according to the efforts put in.)
E) The fifth use of this sentence pattern which we will learn means “depending upon”. When we use this phrase according to the fifth meaning, most of the time “~ni yotte wa” form is only used. Below we have provided few examples of this use.
– (fukusayou: side effects; Depending upon person to person, this medicine has its side effects.)
– (shuukyou: religion; kinjirareru: prohibit; Depending upon the religion meat is prohibited.)
This is the last sentence pattern which we have studied of this lesson. Since “~ni yoru” and its related forms have five different uses learn them very carefully. The rest of the sentence patterns are also equally important hence learn them also thoroughly. Let’s go on to the next lesson now.
|// <![CDATA[//||1. When you hear some news or something from someone else and while talking about that which you have heard, you make use of the phrase “~ni yoru to/ ~ ni yoreba” in Japanese grammar. The actual meaning of this phrase is “on the basis of” or “according to”. Noun is used before this phrase. Read the following examples which explains the use and meaning of this sentence pattern. – (denki: weather; yohou: forecast; According to the weather forecast, tomorrow it might rain.)
– (According to my friends this movie is very interesting.)
2. In this sentence pattern we will learn the use of the grammar pattern “~wo/o chuushin ni shite/ ~wo/o chuushin ni/ ~wo/o chuushin to shite”. This pattern means “by keeping something as a center”, “by focusing something” or “by giving something important”. Before this phrase noun is used. Following are few examples related to this sentence pattern.
| – (shouten: shops; Focusing the railway station as the center, many shops have been built around it.)
– (sangyou: industry; Taking automobile industry as a focus, advancement is being done.)
3. A sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which means “irrespective of” or “without being influenced by something” is “~wo/o towazu/ ~wa towazu”. A noun always comes before this phrase whenever used in a sentence. Following are few examples related to the use of this sentence pattern.
– (In this hospital irrespective of day or night emergency patients are admitted.)
– (Irrespective of your experience and academic record we will recruit those who are interested or wish to do something.)
4. When you want to represent one from the entire group and give importance to only one thing or a person and then talk about the other things and people at that time “~wo/o hajime/ ~wo/o hajime to suru” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. “Hajime” basically means first or beginning. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are given below.
– (Starting with your parents and then the other people of the family how is their health?)
– (The Parliament members and then the other inspection party visited the damaged site.)
5. Another new sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which means “on the basis of” is “~wo/o motoni/ ~wo/o motoni shite”. Similar to the other sentence patterns which we have learnt till now, in this sentence pattern noun is used before this phrase. Below we have provided you with some examples to clearly understand the meaning and use of this sentence pattern.
– (touhyou: voting: shinsashi: judgment; On the basis of the voting of the fans, the best 10 songs of this year will be decided.)
– (Non-fiction means a story based on facts.)
6. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now has only one use but the meaning changes a little according to the context of the sentence. The phrase is “~ue/ ~ueni” which means not only but also, in addition to or besides. Examples of the use of this sentence pattern are given below.
– (Otaku: house; omiyage: gifts; In addition to feast I also received gifts at Mr. Hayashi’s house.)
– (In addition to intelligence she also has a good personality.)
– (This machine is not only easy to use but is also convenient as it is light weight.)
7. The sentence pattern which we will be introduced to now is “~uchi ni/ ~nai uchi ni”. This grammar pattern has two different uses and meaning accordingly. In both the uses before the phrase either a verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or noun is used. In case of verbs you can use either the root verb form or the nai form. When you want to use the i-adjective the “i” remains as it is and then the phrase is used. Similarly in case of na-adjectives na remains and the phrase is added to it. However in case of nouns “no” joins the noun and the phrase. In other words particle “no” comes between the noun and the phrase. Let’s study each use carefully along with their respective examples.
A) The first use of this sentence pattern is when you express your wish of doing something before the current condition or situation changes. So in short it means during, till, before. Read the following examples which clearly show you this use and its meaning.
– (Till the time I am in Japan I wish to visit Kyoto at least once.)
– (Till you are young it is better to experience various things.) B) The second use helps you to tell about a particular condition which was not present earlier but has occurred due to something that you did. It generally means “while”. Read the following examples.
– (namida: tears; While I was listening to her talk I got tears in my eyes.)
– (I was cold first but my body became hot while I was running.)
8. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we will study is “~kawari ni”. This sentence pattern is used in three different ways. All the three uses have been explained in detail below along with the appropriate examples. A) In the first use of “~kawari ni” always the dictionary form or root verb form of the verb comes before this phrase. This pattern is used when you want to say that instead of doing this I did that other thing. Hence in short we can say that it means “in place of” or “instead of”. For example
– (Ongakukai: musical concert; Instead of going to the musical concert, it is better to buy 3 CD.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern is same as the B use of the grammar pattern “~ni kawatte”. This use means on behalf of or as a representative of. In this use before “kawari ni” always noun followed by the “no” particle comes. In other words “no” particle joins the noun and this phrase. Following are few examples.
– (Instead of my ill father I had come.)
C) There is no specific meaning of the third use of this sentence pattern. It generally shows some comparison or may mean appropriate. For example
– (yachin: rent; The room is small so it is expected that the rent will be less appropriately.)
With this we come to the end of this sentence pattern. Almost all the sentence patterns which we have studied in this lesson are easy therefore try and make your own examples for each pattern. These patterns are used frequently while talking by the Japanese people. So it would be better that you also try and use these patterns in your conversation with your friends