JLPT 3 – general grammar

October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment

1. The sentence pattern “~kurai/ ~gurai/~kuraida/~guraida” which we are going to study now has two different uses and different meanings based upon its use. Let’s see its uses separately one by one along with examples. A) In the first way this sentence pattern is used to show the degree or intensity of the occurrence of some event. Here the root verb form and “nai” form of verbs is used before the phrase. While using i-adjectives or na-adjective “i” and “na” remains respectively and the phrase is used after these adjectives. In case you are using a noun it is directly added to this phrase. Let’s read some examples which are provided below.

Jlpt grammar with nai form – (tana: shelf; The earthquake had a degree so as to make things fall from the shelf.)

na form of Jlpt grammar – (The degree of pain in the stomach was so much that it could not be controlled.)

B) The meaning of the second use is “at least” or in other words to show minimum of something. Here mostly only verbs and nouns are used in the sentence before the phrase. Below are some examples related to this use.

using verbs in japanese grammar – (Even if you were busy, you could have at least called up.)

Jlpt grammer with nouns – (When people meet they should at least greet each other.)

2. The next sentence pattern of Japanese grammar which we are going to learn is “~saichuu ni/ ~saichuuda”. This sentence pattern basically means “in the middle” . The “te form” of the verb should always be used before this phrase. In addition if you are using a noun then join the phrase immediately after the noun used. Le’s read some examples related to the use of this phrase to clearly understand it.

japanese grammar using saichuu ni – (shiai: match; It started raining in the middle of the match.)

saichuuda Jlpt grammar – (jiken: incident; chousa: investigation; We are in the middle of the investigation related to that incident.)

3. The sentence pattern “~shidai” is used very frequently by the Japanese people. The meaning of this sentence pattern is “as soon as”. In this case the action has not yet taken place. However we are just expressing what will happen or what should happen. In this sentence pattern the phrase should come immediately after a noun or the “masu base” form of the verb. When you read the following examples you understand this pattern more clearly.

use of shida phrase – (jyuusho: address; renraku: contact; As soon as your new address is confirmed please contact me.)

japanese grammar – (As soon as you reach, give me a call.)

4. While telling the reason behind some loss which has occurred or something bad that has happened at that time in Japanese grammar the sentence pattern “~seida/ ~seide/ ~seika” is used. In addition this sentence pattern is also used to express some bad results which have taken place. This sentence pattern has a negative feeling to it. Following are examples provided for a better understanding.

seide Jlpt grammar – (shippai: mistake; I did this mistake because of him.)

use of seika – (The photographs did not come good because of the camera.)

5. The sentence pattern “~tabi/ ~tabi ni” means whenever. Before “~tabi” only verbs and nouns are used. In case of verbs always the dictionary form or root verbs are used. In case of nouns the “no” particle comes between the noun and “tabi/ tabi ni”. So in other words the “no” particle joins the noun with “tabi/ tabi ni”. Examples of this pattern are as follows.

japanese grammar with tabi – (keiken: experience; Whenever a person experiences something new he learns something out of it.)

japanese grammar – (afurete: to get flooded; higai: damage; Whenever there is high rainfall, this river gets flooded and lots of damage takes place.)

6. A sentence pattern which shows that one action follows the other or doing something immediately after doing something else. The sentence pattern which is used in Japanese grammar for this purpose is “~ta totan”. This is a very frequently used sentence pattern of Japanese grammar. Here the first action finishes and immediately the second action start taking place. This pattern is different from “~shida” because in “~shidai” the action has not yet taken place. Whereas in “~ta totan” the first action has already taken place. While using “ta totan” always only the “ta form” of the verb is used before “totan”. The “ta” basically shows that the “ta” form has to be used. The following examples related to this sentence pattern will clearly show you this difference.

Jlpt grammar with te form – (I was so tired that I slept as soon as I got into the bed.)

jlpt level – (The teacher enters the classroom as soon as the first bell rings.)

7. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is the use of “~te irai”. This pattern in one word means “since”. Here only the “te form” of the verb is always used. Example of this sentence pattern “~te irai” is.

use of te irai – (Since the time I am in Japan, my ideas towards Japan have changed a little.)

Japanese grammar sentences – (koui: love; Since that thing took place it looks like he holds love for her.)

8. When “~toori ni/ ~doori ni” is used as a sentence pattern it means “same as” or “in the same way”. When you use verb before this phrase it has to be either in its root verb form or in the “ta form”. When a noun is used before “toori ni” then always the “no” particle comes between these two. Rather the “no” particle joins the noun and “toori ni”. On the other hand when nouns is used before “doori ni” at that time the phrase comes immediately after this phrase. In other words “no” particle does not come between them. Let’s read the following examples related to this sentence pattern.

Jlpt grammar with toori ni – (Please do as it is written in the manual.)

use of doori ni – (Please proceed as indicated by the arrow.)

9. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is used to express or tell about some unfavorable result. The sentence pattern is “~tokoro ni/ ~tokoro e/ ~tokoro wo/o”. Here you will observe that different particles are used in all three options. Usually “~tokoro ni” is used with time, “~tokoro e” is used with place and “~tokoro wo/o” is used with situation. The dictionary form, ta form or te form plus iru is used before “tokoro ni”. When you use i-adjective before “tokoro ni” the “i” adjective stays as it is. Let’s see an example of each type.

jlpt grammar with tokoro ni – (When we were talking about Ms. Kim at that time the concerned person came.)

us of toko ni – (When I was going to the bedroom at that time my friend came.)

Jlpt – (When I was secretly smoking at that time my sister saw me.)

10. “~hodo/ ~hododa/ ~hodono” is a sentence pattern used in two different ways Japanese grammar. Based on the use its meaning also differs. Both the uses and their meanings are explained in detail below. In addition few examples are also provided for each use. A) The first use shows us the degree or intensity of something. This use is similar to the “A” use of the sentence pattern “~kurai/ ~gurai”. The meaning of this could be “as much as” or shows an extent of something. The root verb form or the “nai” form of verbs is used before this phrase. In case of i-adjective, na-adjectives and nouns they remain as it is and the phrase is joined immediately after their use. Mostly this use has some negative shade to its meaning. Following are some examples.

jlpt grammar with kurai – (I can feel the degree of pain of the parents who have lost their children.)

japanese grammar with gurai – (When I heard the voice of my mother after a long time I was so happy that I felt like crying.)

B) The second use of this sentence pattern means “the most”. Here either the root verb or a noun comes before the phrase. In addition sometimes at the end of the sentence the “wa/ ga nai” expression is also used. Read the following examples which show you this use.

wa/ga ni japanese grammar – (The most enjoying thing is to go for a trip with best friends.)

japanese grammer for level 3 – ( She is the most intelligent girl I have ever met.)

In this lesson we will be learning various new sentence patterns of Japanese grammar which help us to give an excuse in a polite way, to talk about some bad results, To express a fear of something, expression which is used while telling your decision and many others. The sentence patterns are not very difficult to understand. So now let’s start with our study.

// 1. This pattern provides us with a phrase which helps us talk about some bad result that we have got. The phrase is “~bakari ni” which is used only to show bad results which are related to me or my feelings. In short it means “this is the only reason because of which the bad result has been received which makes me feel sad”. While using this sentence pattern if a noun or a na-adjective comes before this phrase then always add “de aru” after the noun or the na-adjective. “De aru” always comes between noun and the phrase or na-adjective and phrase. Always remember that this phrase and noun which is used cannot be joined by “no” particle. In case of na-adjectives you can either directly add “bakari ni” to it or add “de aru” and then the phrase. Let’s read a few examples related to this sentence pattern.Japanese grammar with bakari ni – (As I did not have money, I could not continue my studies in college.)

Jlpt grammar with bakari ni – (arubaito: part time job; As I am not good at Japanese language, I am not getting a part time job.)

2. When you want to give a polite excuse “~monodakara” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase literally means “therefore”. In this sentence pattern when you use a noun before “monodakara” at that time “na” is added to the noun and then the phrase comes. So in other words “na” joins the noun and the phrase.

japanese grammar with na join – (shuukan: customs; shitsurei: wrong;I don’t know the customs of Japan therefore I may make mistakes.)

Japanese grammar – (As I am the only child, I am raised leisurely therefore I have become selfish.)

3. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now again makes the use of the word “you”. The actual sentence pattern is “~you ni/ ~you na”. This pattern has two different meanings according to its use. Each use along with its specific explanation has been provided below.

A) The first meaning of this sentence pattern is “as it is/ same as”. Here basically we provide or show an example to do something same like it is. So this pattern actually shows or indicates the example based upon which you have to do the other thing. Let’s read the following examples which will help you understand this meaning and use properly.

Japanese grammar with you ni – (Fill the form as it is written here.)

Jlpt grammar – (I do not like things which are sweet like cake.)

B) The meaning of the second use of this phrase is “in order to/ so as to”. In this sentence pattern either the dictionary form or the “nai” form of the verb is used before this phrase. Following are the examples of this use.

nai form of vrerbs – (This book is simple so as to students of primary school can also read it.)

use of nai form – (Take care of yourself in order to not catch cold.)

4. “~Ippouda” phrase is used in a sentence pattern to indicate the tendency of something which is proceeding gradually. The root verb form of verb will be used before “ippouda”. Examples are as below. The kanji used for “ippouda” is Jlpt grammar with ippouda kanji. A hint in this sentence pattern is that “ippouda” always comes to the end of a sentence.

– (saikin: recently; tsuushin: communication; pasokon: computer; Recently the tendency of communication by computers in increasing.)

– (Recently I am not using English very frequently, hence I have started forgetting it.)

5. When you are worried and have a fear of something in you at that time the sentence pattern “~osorega aru” is used in Japanese grammar. Basically the phrase “osore” means to be scared therefore the phrase “osorega aru” means “to have fear of something”. The dictionary form of verbs is used before this phrase. In case of nouns “no” particle comes between the phrase and the noun. Some examples of this sentence pattern are provided below.

Jlpt grammar with osorega – (shujyutsu: operation; If the operation in not done immediately, then I fear it will be very late.)

Japanese grammar no particles(akuji: deficit; If this type of deficit continues, then there is a fear of this company to close down.)

6. When any rules, schedule etc. is decided at that time to tell this decision the phrase “~koto ni natte iru” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. The phrase “~koto ni natte iru” means “to decide”. Before this phrase either a verb or i-adjective comes. In case of verbs only root verbs or “nai” form is used. In case of i-adjectine “i” is not omitted. It stays as it is and the phrase is added to it. The examples of this phrase which shows its use and meaning are provided below.

japanese grammar with koto ni natte iru – (I have decided to meet a friend on the coming Sunday.)

Jlpt grammar  i adjective – (The rule of this hotel is to close the door at 12 o’clock.)

7. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~koto wa nai”. This phrase literally means “not at all necessary” or in other words “it is not necessary to do”. In the structure of this sentence pattern always the dictionary form of verb comes before the phrase. Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern

use of koto wa ni in JLPT – (If it is a bag of trip then there is no need of going and buying it as I will lend it to you.)

Jlpt grammar – (The result of that inspection is not bad, so there is no need to worry.)

8. When you are doing something and at that time when you realize that there is no other way for this so have to do it in this way only, at that time “~shikanai” is used. In other words this phrase means that there is no 2nd or 3rd way of doing this so have to do it by using this way only. Once again in this form also the root verb or dictionary form of verbs is used before “~shikanai”. The examples are as follows.

shikani japanese grammar – (As the trains have stopped due to the accident, there is no other way than walking.)

japanese grammar with root verbs – (As I have promised, hence there is no other way but to go.)

9. The sentence pattern “~to iu kotoda” has two different uses in Japanese grammar. Based upon its uses the meaning also differs. Let’s study each use and meaning separately. In addition let’s also read the few examples keenly which have been provided. A) In the first use we have heard something from someone else and we are quoting it as we have heard it. In Japanese the things which we hear from someone else is known as “denbun”. This use generally means “it is said that” or “it is known that”. Below are some examples.

Japanese grammar lessons – (It is said that the main reason of this accident is unknown.)

JLPT – (Based upon the weather forecast it is said that there will be lots of rain this year.)

B) The meaning of the second use of this phrase is very simple which is “in other words. Following is a conversation which shows you the use of this sentence pattern. Japanese phrase – ”Tomorrow I will be a bit too busy.” japanese sentences – ”Ok then, in other words are you not going to come for the party then?”

10. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to learn is “~wake ga nai/ ~wake wa nai”. This sentence pattern means “it is not possible” or “it is impossible for something to happen like this. Following are examples related to this sentence pattern.

Japanese grammar with wa nai – (As Mr. Chan is a Chinese, it is not possible that he cannot write kanji.)

waka wa nai Jlpt grammar – (umi: sea; shinsen: fresh; As this place is far from the sea, it is not possible to get fresh fish.)

 

1. The first sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study is “~wake ni wa ikanai/ ~wake ni mo ikanai”. This sentence pattern has two different meanings and uses respectively. Study these two uses very carefully as they are a little confusing. A) In the first use the dictionary or root verb form of verbs come before this phrase. The literal meaning of the first use of this sentence pattern is “due to some reason I cannot do this task”. Following are the examples of this use.Japanese grammar – (ronbun: thesis; kansei: complete; kikoku: return to own country; I wish to return to my country but cannot go till the thesis gets completed.)

Jlpt grammar – (It is not possible to do this work alone, but as everybody is busy getting help is impossible.)

B) The second use is opposite to the first. Here the “nai form” of the verb is used. The meaning of this use is that “due to some reason we have to do this task”. A similar sentence pattern to this one in Japanese grammar is “~shinakereba narimasen”. Let’s read the following examples related to this use.

nai form of Japanese grammar – (As there is an exam tomorrow I have to study.)

Jlpt grammar with nai form – (As I have a family, I have to work.)

2. We have already learnt the use of the sentence pattern “~kara…made” in the basic Japanese grammar. Here we will see a similar rather same sentence pattern which is “~kara~ni kakete”. This sentence pattern has the same meaning which is “from – to”. This sentence pattern is used to show the range of time, distance, places etc. Before both “kara” and “ni kakete” nouns are always used. Below are some examples of this sentence pattern.

use of kara – (sakuya: last evening; It was raining from last night to today morning.)

use of kakete – (shou: lane; douro: road; kouji: construction; The construction work of the road is taking place from 1st lane to 3rd lane.)

3. The sentence pattern “~tatoe~temo/ tatoe~demo” which is used in Japanese grammar means “even if”. When we use this sentence pattern after “tatoe” the “te” form of verb is used and then mo is added to it. In case of i-adjective remove “i” and add “kutemo” to it. In case of na-adjectives remove “na” and add “demo” to it. Finally in case of nouns also add “demo” to the noun used. Following are some examples which have been provided for you so that you understand its use properly.

Japanese grammar with ta form of verbs – (shippai: wrong; koukanai: repent; Since I have decided to go by this road, even if something goes wrong I will not repent.)

the tatoe form – (Even if the job is difficult I will still continue doing it.)

4. This sentence pattern which we are going to study now has a very simple meaning and use. However when we use verbs, adjectives and nouns the construction of the sentence changes according to the element which we are using. The sentence pattern is “~sae ~ba” which means “only if”. Therefore in short here if the condition is fulfilled then only the next action is possible. Following are the different sentence constructions which are to be used.

Root verb + sae + sureba/ shinakereba

In case of i-adjective remove “i” and replace it by “ku”. Then add sae + areba/ nakereba.

In case of na-adjectives remove “na” and replace it by “de”. The next step will be to add sae + areba/ nakereba.

For nouns there are two different constructions. You can use either of them. The first one is noun + de +sae + areba/ nakereba.

The second construction of noun is noun + sae + “ba form of verb”/ “kereba form of “i-adjective”/ “nara form” of na-adjectives/ “nara” form of noun.

Let’s read some examples of this sentence pattern.

Jlpt grammar with nara – (Instant noodles are easy to eat only if they are put in boiling water.)

Jlpt – (Only if the language would have been common then it would have been better for more and more communication.)

5. “~Mo ~ba ~mo/ ~mo ~nara ~mo” sentence pattern is used when you want to express that when one thing is present then the second thing has to be there. If the first thing is positive then the second thing has to be positive. Opposite to this if the first thing is negative then the second thing is also negative. In the previous lesson we have already seen the “ba” and “nara” forms of verbs and adjectives. In addition we have also seen that na-adjective cannot be changed to “ba” form instead it is changed to “nara” form. The sentence construction of this sentence pattern will be {noun + mo + “ba form of verb/ i-adjective or “nara” form of na-adjective + noun + mo}. Read the following examples to clearly understand this sentence pattern and its use.

 jlpt n3 level grammar – (The reputation of the new restaurant is good because it is cheap and its taste is also good.)

 learning jlpt grammar – (You are good at singing and also at dancing, therefore you will be a popular person in the party.)

6. When we want to say “this also and that also” at that time the sentence pattern “~yara ~yara” is used in Japanese language. In this sentence pattern we make use of either dictionary form of verb, i-adjective or noun. In case of i-adjectives “i” is not removed instead it remains as it is. Therefore the structure of the sentence will be

Root verb/ i-adjective/ noun + yara + Root verb/ i-adjective/ noun + yara

Below are some examples of this sentence pattern.

Japanese grammar lessons – (Before returning to my country I was busy reserving tickets and buying gifts.)

Jlpt grammar – (When I over drank wine, I had a headache and it was very painful for me.)

7. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study is “~darake”. This sentence pattern is full of bad things or feelings. It carries a negative or bad meaning to it. The meaning of this phrase is “full of”. Before this phrase a noun is used. Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern.

darake Jlpt grammar – (This report is full of alphabet mistakes and hence is difficult to read.)

Japanese grammar lessons – (As we had gone for a trip all over the world, the travel bag has fully become dirty.)

 

Sentences describing completed actions

// 1. When we criticize something or while talking about the quality of something at that time “~ppoi” sentence pattern is used. There is a negative shade to this sentence pattern. Either i-adjective or noun is used before this phrase. In case you use i-adjectives then just remove “i” and add “ppoi” to it. In case of nouns directly add the phrase to it. Some examples have been provided to you below.Jlpt grammar – (itazurai: mischievous; She looked at me with a mischievous sight.)

Japanese grammar – (This child is a student but looks like an adult.

There is another use and meaning of this sentence pattern which is “often/ easily”. When this sentence pattern is used for this purpose at that time the masu base form of the verb comes before the phrase. Another important thing to remember about this sentence pattern is that “ppoi” follows like i-adjectives and follows all its rules. This is applicable for both these uses of “ppoi”. Few examples related to this use are as follows.

Japanese grammar with ppoi – (This person gets angry very easily but in fact is a gentle person.)

Japanese grammar lessons – (Her forgetting nature is often due to her old age.)

2. The sentence pattern “~gatai” means “not easily, hard to, difficult to”. It is used to express the quality of the task you are performing. The “masu base” or stem form of the verb is used before this phrase. Let’s read some of the examples which have been provided below.

gatai JLPT – (shinji: to believe; It is hard to believe that she will do such a thing.)

masu based JLPT grammar – (hanzai: crime; It is difficult to forgive those who do crime towards small children.)

3. When something happens very frequently and easily at that time to express that thing “~gachita/ ~gachi no” sentence pattern is used. This pattern conveys a bad meaning. In other words its tendency is unhappy or bad. Before this phrase either “masu base” form is used or a noun is used. Following are few examples related to this sentence pattern.

gachita based Japanese grammar – (When there is snowfall there is a tendency of trains getting late due to the block.)

masu based form japanese – (My mother is not well and hence cannot work at all.)

4. When you want to express a slight feeling about something at that time in Japanese grammar the sentence pattern “~gimi” is used. The kanji of “~gimi” is gimi japanese grammar .Here the degree of sensation or feeling is very low. Similar to the above pattern here also either a noun or “stem” form of verb comes before “gimi”. Following are some examples which show the use of “~gimi”.

JLPT – (The job is very hectic, so there is a feeling of tiredness now a days.)

Japanese JLPT – (Now a days I feel I have become fat so I have started jogging.)

5. A Japanese phrase which was used in old Japanese was the use of “~ge”. This sentence pattern is used when we express the condition or appearance of a person when we see him/ her. In this sentence pattern only the adjectives are used. Before this phrase either an i-adjective or a na-adjective comes where “i” and “na” are removed respectively and then “ge” is directly added to it. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are as follows.

i adjective JLPT – (She seems to be alone as she is sitting alone on the bench in the park.)

na adjective JLPT – (He came forward as if he wanted to say something.)

6. When you have started doing something but it is not yet complete and you want to say that you are in the middle of it at that time “~kakeda/ ~kakeno/ ~kakeru” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. In other words you can also say that this sentence pattern means “in the middle of”. Some examples related to the use of this sentence pattern are given below.

kakeda japanese grammar – (There is a coffee kept on the table which is half drunk.)

japanese grammar – (Once a thing is said it is not good to leave it incomplete.)

7. To say that you have done some job completely in Japanese you have to use the sentence pattern “~kiru/ ~kireru/ ~kirenai”. In other words this sentence pattern means “totally, completely, to do till the end”. Always the masu base or stem form of the verb is used before this phrase. Read the following examples related to this sentence pattern to understand its use and meaning clearly.

JLPT kireru grammar – (He returned with a face that showed he was completely exhausted.)

use of kirenai – (There are so many stars that we cannot totally count their number.)

8. The last sentence of this lesson and also the Japanese grammar of N3 level is “~nuku”. This sentence pattern basically helps us to talk about the process by which we reach the aim. Always the masu base form of the verb is used before “nuku”. Let’s read the following examples of this sentence pattern.

use of nuku – (I made mistakes in the middle but somehow I could complete the work.)

Japanese JLPT – (After thinking a lot, we came to this conclusion.)

 

 

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