JLPT 3 – basic grammar
October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment
|1. In the first sentence pattern we will see the use of “~toshite/ ~toshitewa/ ~toshitemo/ ~toshiteno” either of them. The meaning which this sentence pattern conveys is either “not only…but also” which actually shows the contrast about a thing or on an occasion or “as”. It basically is used to talk about someone’s position, qualification or type. Noun always comes before this word. But when you use “~toshiteno” then at that time noun comes after this word. Keep this minute difference in mind thoroughly. Following are some examples of this sentence pattern.
– (Nanbyou: incurable disease; nintei: recognized; This disease has been recognized as an incurable disease.)
– (kare: he; He is not only a good doctor but is also famous as a writer.)
2. Here we will see the meaning and use of the phrase “~to tomoni”. This phrase is used in three different ways and hence has three different meanings depending upon the context of the sentence. Following are the three different uses along with the meaning and its examples.
|A) The first use of “~ to tomoni” means together or along with and in Japanese it is “~ to ishouni”. When you want to use this phrase to convey the meaning together at that time always a noun comes before this phrase. For example:
– (I want to spend the New Year along with my family.)
– (Osaka is an economic centre of Japan along with Tokyo.)
B) The second use of “~to tomoni” is to show simultaneous actions or the events taking place at the same time. So in other words it means “simultaneously” or “at the same time”. In this type before “~ to tomoni” always the dictionary form of verb comes. In case of i-adjectives the “i” remains as it is and “to tomoni” is added. In case of na-adjectives “na” is omitted and is replaced by “de aru”. Same as na-adjective in case of nouns “de aru” is added after the noun and then “to tomoni”. Let’s read the following examples which show us this usage.
– (shidou: guidance; chikara: strength; Mr. Kobayashi is giving guidance to the students and at the same time he is busy doing research.)
– (seihin: product; kaihatsu: development; konnan: very difficult; hiyou: money; Development of this product is very difficult and at the same time it requires a lot of money.)
C) The third use of this phrase is to show that one change follows other change. These changes are natural. So in other words a change takes place and as a result of it the second change takes place. In this sentence pattern either a noun or dictionary form of verb comes before “to tomoni”. Following are some examples related to this use of “to tomoni”.
– (As the age increased the body strength reduced.)
– (keizaiseichou: economic growth; kokumin: nationals/ citizens; seikatsu: lifestyle; Along with the economic growth the national people’s lifestyle also flourished.)
3. In the third sentence pattern we will study the phrase “~ni oite/ ~ni oite wa/ ~ni oitemo/ ~ni okeru”. This phrase is basically used to point out a place or show time, period or era so in short it means “at”. Before this phrase a noun is used. Following are few examples.
– (The meeting will be conducted at the meeting room on the first floor.)
– (jinsei: life; sairyou: the best; This day is the best day of my life.)
4. The fourth sentence pattern teaches us the use of the phrase “~ni oujite/ ~niouji/ ~niojita”. This sentence pattern has only one use but different meaning depending upon the context of the sentence. The various meanings are “according to, appropriate to, be suitable to or so as to suit”. In this sentence pattern also before this phrase the noun is always used. Read the following examples to understand the use of this phrase clearly.
– (uwagi: rabbit; According to the season the rabbit who changes color are also there.)
– (tairyoku: body strength; undou: exercise; Without over stressing yourself, do the exercise according to your body strength.)
5. The fifth sentence pattern introduces us with the phrase “~ni kawatte/ ~ni kawari” which has two different uses and meanings accordingly. Let’s study the uses, their meanings and examples independently.
A) The meaning of the first type of use of “~ni kawatte/ ~ni kawari” is in place of or instead of. This means that the phrase is used to show that a thing which we were using till now has been replaced by some other thing. Read the following examples which will help you understand this use more clearly.
– (ningen: human beings; sagyou: work; Here, in place of humans robots work.)
– (Now in place of type writer word processor is used.)
B) The second use is similar to the first but it means on behalf of or as a substitution. Here we use this phrase to show the substitution of one person by another. Here also before the phrase noun is used. Following examples will help you understand this.
– (kekkonshiki: wedding ceremony; shusseki: attend; Instead of my father I went for the wedding ceremony.)
– (shushou: Prime minister; kaishou: Foreign minister; houmon: visit; Instead of Prime minister, the Foreign minister visited America.)