初級日本語ーBasic grammar

October 21, 2010 § Leave a comment

Japanese Grammer
Learning Japanese grammar is very simple but very different from English Grammar. In English grammar, the form of a simple sentence is [Subject] [Verb] [Object]. Whereas, in Japanese language verb always comes to the end of a sentence.

[Subject] [Object] [Verb]

This lesson will give you details about the basic Japanese grammar, and will begin to teach you how exactly to formulate phrases and sentences.

The main “Particles” in Japanese language are as follows:- //

 

Japanese Particles

 

  • Particles “wa” and “ga”:
    “wa” particle indicates or shows the subject of a sentence. “ga” particle indicates the topic of a sentence. In the example, “I know where you live” (watashi wa anata ga doko ni sunde iru ka shitte imasu), “I” would be the subject while “you” would be the topic.Not all sentences have both a subject and topic and, in many cases, the subject is implied in Japanese (for example, the “I” (watashi wa) would be left out of this sentence because it is implied that since I am talking I am the one that knows where you live). Many Japanese books and teachers teach that “wa” and “ga” are same and it doesn’t matter which you use when. Basically, “wa” is used when you specify or want to give importance to the subject. Whereas “ga” is used when, you are not talking about one particular thing.

    “Ga” particle has another use in Japanese grammar where it means “but”. In addition, “ga” particle is used with a few words like “houshi, suki, kirai, jyouzu and heta”.

     

  • Particle “to”:
    “to” particle has 2 different meanings which are “And” & “With”. “to” is used for connecting nouns. In the example, “Book and magazine are there” (soko ni hon to zasshi ga arimasu.), “to” is used as “and”. In the next example, “I am going to Japan with my mother” (watashi wa haha to nihon e ikimasu), “to” is used as “with”. 
  • Particle “mo”:
    “mo” particle means ‘also’. For example, “Mr. Ram is an Indian. Mr. Ali is also an Indian” (Ram san wa Indojin desu. Alisan mo Indojin desu.) 
  • Particle “wo” or “o”:
    “o” particle indicates the direct object on which the action takes place. In the example, “I eat noodles.” (watashi wa Ramen o tabemasu.), “Ramen” is the direct object which is indicated by the particle. 
  • Particle “ni”:
    “ni” particle is used in many different ways, which are for showing the location of a thing or person; talking about exact time, day, date, month, year; showing the indirect object in other words indicates the receiver of the action; is used while telling the intension behind doing a particular object.In the example, “there is an apple on the table” (tsukue no ue ni ringo ga arimase), “ue” which means on is a location indicated by the “ni” particle. In the example, “I wake up at 6 every morning” (watashi wa maiasa rokuji ni okimasu.), “rokuji” is the exact time indicated by “ni” particle. In the example, “The teacher teaches the students.” (Sensei wa gakuseitachi ni oshiemasu.), “gakuseitachi” are the receivers of the action who are indicated by the “ni” particle. In the example, “I will go with my friend to watch a movie.” (watashi wa tomodachi to eiga wo mini ikimasu.), the intension of going to watch a movie has been indicated by “ni” particle.

     

  • Particle “e”:
    “e” particle shows the movement from one place to another. It shows the ‘Destination’ to which the movement is taking place. In the example, “I am going to school from home.” (watashi wa uchi kara gakkou e ikimasu.), the destination “gakkou” is indicated by “e” particle. 
  • Particle “ka”:
    “ka” particle of Japanese grammar has two different meanings depending upon its location in the sentence. If the particle comes in the middle of a sentence it means “OR”. Whereas, if it comes at the end of the sentence then, it changes the sentence into a question. In the example, “Is this a textbook or a dictionary?” (Kore wa kyoukashyo desu ka, jishyou desu ka.), the “ka” which is in the middle of the sentence means ‘or’ and the “ka” which has come to the end of the sentence has changed it into a question. 
  • Particle “de”:
    “de” particle has many uses and meanings respectively. Some of the uses are, showing the place where the action takes place; by using; shows the means of transport; indicates the medium of language, shows the limit.

 

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